Jan Przewoźnik

This article was prepared for MATE Project:


Nicholas Carr talks about shallow mind in the cypher era; Manfred Spitzer pays attention to the Digitale Demenz. These are the real challenges in a modern cognitive psychology.

I have been developing a method of broadening and deepening our thinking processes for years – by controlling the nine important indicators (see for example Jan Przewoźnik: Myśl – Działaj – Zwyciężaj! Psychologia szachów w praktyce. Gorzów Wielkopolski 2003, 2011). The method is based on Adriaan de Groot’s methodology (Adriaan de Groot: Thought and Choice in Chess. The Hague 1965).

When you decide what to do in A VERY IMPORTANT SITUATION you may ask yourself some adequate questions, for example:

M – The total number of all „moves” considered in the decision tree: How much data do I have? How much data do I need?

N – The number of successive fresh starts in decision tree („branches” in decision tree): How do I find out how much data I have left?

A – The number of different options considered: Do I really explore the situation and problem broadly enough? Did I define the problem too narrowly? Did I define the problem too broadly?

Dmax – The longest variation (how far the subject is able to foresee consequences): Did I predict the consequences far enough? How far am I able to foresee the possible consequences?

nn – The number of successive changes in solving options: Is my process of thinking structured in a good order?

Pmax – The reinvestigations of the option which was mostly considered (Pmax): Am I able to concentrate enough on the best option?

Pser – The longest immediate reinvestigations of the option (it’s the measure of concentration): Am I able to concentrate enough on one option at one moment?

W – The value of the option being chosen: How much is my solution worth?

T – The thinking time: How much was my solving time really worth?

And do not choose your wife or husband with the method, please. Follow your heart.

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The skill of counting variations is one basis in chess development. Another one is looking for “chunks”.

More information you may find here:




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Dear Reader! Now let’s come to the practice. Analyse, please, the Garry Kasparov’s best and “immortal” game:


Compare your analyses here:

Garri Kasparow (w sotrudnicziestwie z Dmitrijem Plisieckim):

Moj szachmatnyj put. 1993-2005. Tom 3, s. 226-230. Ripoł Klasik, Moskwa 2014.

If the task is a tough nut to crack, you will have another one. Just simply mate in one. White to move. 😊

Good luck in exploring your reality broadly and deeply enough!

Finally, do not forget to see the unconscious mind as having a wisdom of its own that should be also honored.